Italian Journal of Food Science

 

VOLUME XXIV (2012) Nr. 4


PAPERS


DETERMINATION OF CONTAMINATION STAGES OF FROZEN CHICKEN DÖNER

N. Değirmencioğlu, R. Irkin and A. Değirmencioğlu

“Döner” is a traditional food product generally produced with beef, lamb, and/or chicken meat, and is a very popular product in Turkey. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible contamination sources during the processing stages of Chicken Döner. Total viable psychrotrophs, total lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae spp., Escherichia coli, total yeast and mold, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus counts were determined at 13 processing points. At the freezing stage, lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae counts can decrease, but at this point the elimination of E. coli and S. aureus contaminations is also very important.


4: 315

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS OF PARMA DRY-CURED HAM AS MARKERS OF AGEING TIME AND AGED HAM AROMA

A. Pinna, N. Simoncini, T. Toscani and R. Virgili

Extension of Parma ham ageing time resulted in several changes in volatile organic compounds in the ham headspace, enhancing signals for branched aldehydes/alcohols and ethanol/ethyl esters. The NaCl content of dry-cured hams was found to be positively related to volatile analytes with low solubility in dry muscle and molecules coming from lipid oxidation, but negatively to certain branched aldehydes originating from amino acids. In PLS regression relating volatile compounds to matured dry-cured ham aroma, branched aldehydes and several oxidation compounds were found to be influential in the sensory perception of matured ham odour. In this respect, oxidative mechanisms (lipid oxidation and oxidative degradation of amino acids) would seem to prevail over other biochemical pathways in increasing the odour of aged dry-cured ham.


4: 321

EFFECTS OF INCORPORATION OF CLEAR FLOUR ON THE QUALITY OF CHINESE NOODLES

Su-Yi Lin, Hua-Han Chen, Shin Lu and Yu-Tuan Chen

Clear flour, the lowest quality of all commercial grades of flour, was incorporated alone or in combination for making Chinese noodles. Some of the RVA (Rapid Visco Analyzer) parameters and Farinograph parameters of wheat flour-clear flour blends, as well as cooked noodle brightness and whiteness index decrease as the clear flour proportion in the blends increased. The water absorption and the mixing tolerance index for wheat flour-clear flour blends showed the reverse tendency. However, incorporation of clear flour improved the tensile force, the textural attributes of cooked noodle, and revealed the greater mouth-feel and overall acceptance.


4: 332

MOISTURE ADSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF PISTACHIO NUT CREAM: A NEW FOOD PRODUCT

O. Faruk Gamli, I. Hayoglu and H. Turkoglu

Pistachio is used in different ways in food industry. Pistachio nut cream is a new delicate food product within this field. Some properties of this product are required to be known to determine the best packaging materials and storage conditions. We determined the moisture sorption isotherms of this product at 4° and 20°C using mathematical equations under saturated salt solutions.

It was concluded that Halsey and Oswin equations were the most suitable equations with higher regression coefficients, and lower SSE and RMSE% values. We recommend these equations for use to determine the moisture adsorption characteristics of similar products to increase the shelf-life.


4: 339

DEGRADATION KINETICS OF TOTAL PHENOLS, ANTHOCYANINS AND ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY OF BLACKCURRANT NECTARS STORED AT ROOM AND REFRIGERATOR TEMPERATURES

J. Piljac-Žegarac, A. Piljac, S. Basha, M. Pinter, D. Šamec and V. Petravić-Tominac

Total phenol (TP) and total anthocyanin (TA) contents as well as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antiradical activity (AA) were monitored during storage of three industrial blackcurrant nectars and one blackcurrant-aronia mix at two temperatures (4° and 22° C) for 10 days. Severe loss in the TP and TA contents and a substantial loss in the AA were observed in blackcurrant nectars stored at both temperatures. The thermal degradation of TP, TA and AA followed first-order reaction kinetics. The kinetic constants of anthocyanin degradation were higher at 22°C, while the constants for AA degradation were not significantly different at 22° and 4°C.


4: 345

EVALUATION OF RIBOFLAVIN CONTENT IN DAIRY PRODUCTS AND NON-DAIRY SUBSTITUTES

S. Sunaric, M. Denic and G. Kocic

The riboflavin content was determined in different types of milk and non-dairy substitutes. A protein precipitation with HClO4 and quantification of riboflavin by isocratic HPLC-FLD, that allows enough sensitivity, precision and accuracy are presented. The advantages of the method are the use of small volumes of less toxic solvents and reagents, simple sample pre-treatment and short time of analysis. The mean value of the riboflavin content was 1.81 μg/mL in UHT milk, 1.51 μg/mL in pasteurized milk and 1.34 μg/mL in yogurt. The average riboflavin content of 2.3 μg/mL was found in raw goat milk, 1.66 μg/mL in raw cow milk, 0.14 μg/mL in soymilk, and 4.79 μg/mL in rice milk. These data show the wide variability in the levels of riboflavin in different types of milk and dairy products. When UHT milks packages were opened and stored in refrigerator for 5 days, the significant degradation of riboflavin was not observed (p < 0.01). The loss of riboflavin was in the range from 0.66 to 7.14% for these storage conditions.


4: 352

ACCELERATED KASHAR CHEESE RIPENING WITH ENCAPSULATED LIPASE AND PROTEASE ENZYMES

M.B. Güler-Akin, M.S. Akin, A.F. Atasoy, H. Avni Kırmacı and L. Eren-Karahan

In this study, lipase and protease enzymes were encapsulated in κ-carrageenan, gellan and sodium alginate by using emulsion and extrusion technique and were then added in cheese milk together with rennet. The effects of the encapsulating material and ripening period on the chemical characteristics of Kashar cheese were investigated. The study demonstrated that κ-carrageenan, gellan and sodium alginate could successfully be used as lipase and protease carrier systems to accelerate Kashar cheese ripening. Those samples treated with κ-carrageenan capsules showed the highest rate of lipolysis and proteolysis compared to those treated with the other capsules.


4: 358

EFFECT OF ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS ON THE RESISTANT STARCH YIELD

Rui Xu, Dan-Hong Xu and Hong-Hua Xu

Cereal starch has a great benefit on human health through its resistant starch content. Enzyme hydrolysis of native starch is very helpful in understanding the structure of starch granules and utilizing them. In this study, the resistant starch formation by pullulanase hydrolysis of corn starch was investigated. Resistant starch was prepared by debranching of normal corn starch and the autoclaving. The objective of this study was to optimize starch debranching with pullulanase for the production of resistant starch. The formation of resistant starch was studied with pullulanase at different incubation temperatures, pH and time. Debranched starch samples with a maximum yield of resistant starch was 17.13%. X-ray diffraction showed qualitative differences among the crystallities formed at different yields of resistant starch. Corn starch (A pattern) was different from resistant starch formed by pullulanase in conjunction with termostable α-amylase (B pattern). Determination of reducing sugars showed that amylose fractions with different number average chain lengths (DP 22-260) were obtained. Under the experimental conditions, the yield of RS increased within a region of DP of 22-75.


4: 367

THE EFFECT OF CHIPS PROCESSING ON THE CONTENT OF TOXIC COMPOUNDS

E. Rytel, K. Kułakowska and A. Nemś

The aim of the experiment was focused on studying the content of glycoalkaloids, nitrates and acrylamide in raw materials, semi and final products coming directly from the processing line of fabricated chips in snacks’ factory. On the ground of the results it was stated that there was found less glycoalkaloids and nitrates by ca. 50% in obtained dough after mixing of dry components and water. The quantity of nitrates in fried chips was lower by 84% comparing to the content of those substances in used raw materials, and glycoalkaloids by 89%. The process of fabricated chips affected on farther quantities of acrylamide formation. In raw materials the content of this toxic component was determined in ranges from 32 μg kg-1 (flakes) up to 65 μg kg-1 (granules) but chips contained ten times more acrylamide content, i.e. about 397 μg kg-1.


4: 376

SHORT COMMUNICATION


COMPARISON BETWEEN NERO D’AVOLA WINES PRODUCED WITH GRAPES GROWN IN SICILY AND TUSCANY

M.C. Cravero, F. Bonello, C. Tsolakis, F. Piano and D. Borsa

Nero d’Avola is a red autochthonous cultivar from Sicily, a region of southern Italy. The aim of this study is to compare the quality of Nero d’Avola wines produced from vines grown in Sicily and Tuscany (central Italy) between 2003 and 2005. Chemical-physical parameters and polyphenol content were evaluated in the grapes and wines and sensory profiles for the wines were obtained. These results highlighted the strong performance of the Nero d’Avola cultivar outside its main production area, characterised by different climate conditions.


4: 384

SURVEYS


DURUM AND COMMON WHEAT IMPORTS INTO PUGLIA DURING 2010:

MYCOTOXINS AND GRAIN-QUALITY MONITORING

R. De Pace, V. Menga, V. Vita, C. Franchino, M.A. Dattoli and C. Fares

The Istituto Zooprofilattico of Puglia and Basilicata is an accredited analytical laboratory for major mycotoxins (Article 12, EC Regulation 882/2004). During 2010, analytical controls for mycotoxins were started on durum and common wheat imported through the Italian Sea, Air and Frontier Health Offices of Bari and Manfredonia. In the mycotoxins analysis, >80% of the tested samples were contaminated by detectable levels of the mycotoxins, with 5% with an aflatoxin B1 content over the EC Regulations limit, and 1.7% with a deoxynilvalenol content over the EC Regulations limit. These samples were also analysed for quality traits, which showed: 25% of all of the samples had test weights <80 kg; 4.2% had protein content <13%; 40% had gluten index <66; 30% had yellow index b* <24; about 50% had flour strength W between 100 and 200; and almost 40% had a tenacity to extensibility (P/L) ratio >1.5.


4: 388

A SURVEY OF ERGOSTEROL CONTENT OF TOMATO PRODUCTS IN TURKEY DURING 2006-2010

Ç. Kadakal

Ergosterol is an important constituent of fungal cell wall and measurement of it is a useful method to detect fungal activity, which correspond to mycotoxine production. Monitoring of ergosterol content in tomato products in Turkey has been carried out since 2006. The results of monitoring over the period 2006-2010 are presented. During this time 344 samples of six different tomato products (home-made tomato paste, commercial tomato paste, diced or crushed tomato, tomato juice, ketchup and tomato puree) were analysed for ergosterol using high-performance liquid chromatography.

The detection limit of ergosterol was 0.1 mg/kg. Recovery experiments were carried out with spiked samples in the range 2-10 mg/kg of ergosterol. Average ergosterol contents were highest in home-made tomato paste (1,074 mg/kg), and lowest in tomato juice (4.5 mg/kg). Ergosterol exceeded the Turkish legal limit of 15 mg/kg in 65 of 88 commercial tomato paste samples; however all home-made tomato paste were >15 mg/kg. This paper reports data of the first survey for the presence of ergosterol in tomato products in Turkey.


4: 396

PREVIEW ON VOLUME XXV No. 1, 2013


4: 402

AUTHOR INDEX


4: 403

CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXIV - 2012


4: 406

GUIDE FOR AUTHORS


4: 410

CONTRIBUTORS


4: 413




.

 

VOLUME XXIV (2012) Nr. 3


REVIEW


 

LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES: BIOFILMS IN FOOD PROCESSING
P. Di Ciccio, M. Conter, E. Zanardi, S. Ghidini, A. Vergara, D. Paludi, A.R. Festino and A. Ianieri

Contamination of food by Listeria monocytogenes (L.m) frequently occurs in food processing environments, where cells persist due to their ability to attach to surfaces. L.m is able to attach and colonize environmental surfaces by producing a three dimensional matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) called biofilm; such structures are dynamic systems. Once established, biofilms can serve as a source of product contamination. Moreover, L.m in the biofilm state shows a reduced susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. The present review focuses on L.m biofilms in food processing environments. In addition, some aspects of biofilm control and eradication are highlighted.

 

3: 203

PAPERS


 

SOURCES OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES CONTAMINATION IN TRADITIONAL FERMENTED SAUSAGE PROCESSING PLANTS IN ITALY
D. Meloni, F. Piras, A. Mureddu, R. Mazza, D. Nucera and R. Mazzette

Environmental samples, raw materials and fermented sausages produced in Sardinia (Italy) were analysed in order to investigate the prevalence and enumeration of L. monocytogenes. Isolates were identified by single PCR and characterised by multiplex PCR-based serogrouping. The contamination routes of L. monocytogenes in the plants were traced using PFGE. In addition, a quantitative assessment of the in vitro biofilm formation was carried out. Fermented sausages seem to be regularly contaminated with L. monocytogenes: results showed the ability of the pathogen to overcome the hurdles of the manufacturing process and adapt to the processing plant environments, forming biofilms.

 

3: 214

USE OF RUSTIC PIGS TO MANUFACTURE PORK SALAMI FREE OF COLOUR AND TASTE ENHANCERS
M. Bedia, R. Serraino and S. Bañón

Two different pork sources (early and heavy-rustic pig breed) were evaluated to manufacture semi-ripe Salami free of two additives with enhancing properties (Ponceau red and sodium glutamate). Two trials were performed using salamis from the above pork sources. The eating quality and several related ripening properties were determined. Ponceau red colouring improved lean colour in early Salami, but masked the natural pinkness as a result of nitrous-myoglobin formation in rustic Salami; however, better colour can be reached by using pork from heavy rustic pigs, without adding Ponceau red. The resulting flavour of Salami was similar with and without sodium glutamate (P≤0.05).

 

3: 223

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BASIC BEEF TEXTURE ATTRIBUTES AND THEIR PERCEPTION BY POLISH CONSUMERS
D. Guzek, D. Gł.abska, A. Wierzbicka, J. Wierzbicki and M. Cierach

There is a possibility of defining beef desirability, using formulas based on texture attributes (tenderness, juiciness, and fibrousness). The aim of the study was analysis of beef texture consumer survey and defining relationships between attributes. Object were results of evaluation of roast beef (24 batches, each evaluated by at least 30 randomly chosen consumers) conducted using 23-point intensity scale (method of the Texas A&M University). Statistical analysis was conducted using Statistica computer program. Using obtained predictive models, complex beef texture evaluation may be conducted – tenderness evaluation accompanied by fibrousness and juiciness prediction or fibrousness evaluation accompanied by tenderness and juiciness prediction.

 

3: 231

 

VALIDATION OF AN ELISA ACCORDING TO EC DECISION 2002/657/EC FOR DETECTION OF ZEARALENONE IN FEEDSTUFF
R. De Pace, C. Franchino, F. Floridi and V. Vita

This study presents data from a single laboratory for internal validation of an enzyme-linked immunoassorbent assay (ELISA) for determination of levels of the mycotoxin zearalenone in complementary and complete feedstuff for dairy cattle, calves, sheep and goats. The study was carried out at the request of European Commission (EC) Recommendation 576/2006/EC, in agreement with EC Decision 2002/657/EC on the implementation of EC Directive 96/23/EC and concerning the performance of analytical methods and interpretation of results. This screening detection method has useful advantages: it can analyse large numbers of samples in a relatively short time, with a small quantity of sample required; it is sufficiently robust, reliable and rugged to be statistically sound; and it generates few suspected false negatives (<5%).

 

3: 240

SURVIVAL OF HEPATITIS A VIRUS IN PASTEURIZED MANILA CLAMS
E. Cappellozza, G. Arcangeli, M. Rosteghin, S. Kapllan, C. Magnabosco, E. Bertoli and C. Terregino

Reports of infections from enteric viruses, particularly hepatitis A virus (HAV), and norovirus, have resulted in consumers boiling or steaming molluscs before eating them and, currently, ready to use, pasteurized and packed products are available from the food industry. The present study investigated HAV survival in manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) after infection and subsequent pasteurization treatments of different duration and temperature according to established industrial procedures. The results showed that HAV was completely inactivated only after application of heat treatment at 90°C for 10 minutes and only when that temperature was reached in the core of the mollusc.

 

3: 247

THE INFLUENCE OF STERILIZATION ON FREE-RADICAL GENERATION, DISCOLORATION AND THE ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF CERTAIN SPICE HERBS
E. Kurzeja, M. Stec, P. Ramos, B. Pilawa and K. Pawłowska-Góral

The aim of this work was to assess the influence of steam sterilization on free-radical generation in herbs and on changes in their chromatic parameters, as well as in their antioxidant activity and the content of polyphenols and flavonoids.
The research conducted showed that the Hight Temperature Short Time (HTST) sterilization method decreased the number of free radicals in the herbs tested. At the same time, the antioxidant activity as well as the polyphenol and flavonoid contents increased. Changes in chromaticity in sterilized herbs were determined; darkening and shift towards red and yellow hues were observed. The antioxidant properties of herbs before and after sterilization decreased in the following sequence: oregano>thyme>marjoram>basil.

 

3: 254

OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS VARIABLES FOR EXTRACTION OF ZINC, COPPER AND IRON BY MICROWAVE-ASSISTED EXTRACTION FROM PISTACHIO NUT USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY
M. Khajeh

In this study, a full factorial design and three-level, three-factor Box-Behnken experimental design based on response surface methodology (RSM) were used for optimizing zinc, copper and iron mineralization from pistachio nuts by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) prior to its determination using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Four independent variables including power, temperature, time and volume of nitric acid were chosen in this study. The results of full factorial design showed that the power, temperature and volume of nitric acid were significant. Therefore, a Box-Behnken experimental design was performed in order to determine the optimum conditions. The working conditions for results obtained by Box-Behnken for three elements were established as a compromise between optimum values found for each analyte (zinc, copper and iron). These values were 100°C, 425 W and 4.0 mL, for temperature, irradiation power and volume of nitric acid, respectively. A high regression coefficient between the variables and the response (R2 ≈ 0.97 for all elements) indicated excellent evaluation of experimental data by a polynomial regression model.

 

3: 263

SHORT COMMUNICATIONS


 

INFLUENCE OF MARINADES ON THE LEVEL OF PAHS IN GRILLED MEAT PRODUCTS
K. Tkacz, A. Wiek and M.S. Kubiak

This manuscript addresses the effect of meat marinating and applying aluminum trays during grilling on the content of PAHs in pork steaks of neck. Based on survey evidence it was found that the use of marinades with beer, wine and oil increased the content of PAHs in grilled meat products. The results obtained in this study clearly indicate that the use of the aluminum trays in grilling process, significantly reduces the level of PAHs in finished products (BaP - below quantification limit of the method). The application of aluminum trays resulted in the reduction of the total level of PAHs, i.e. by 66.9% - dry marinate and by 86.3% - wine marinate.
Sensory analysis confirmed the highest value in steaks from the grate after dry marinating; the least tasty appeared to be those steaks marinated in wine.

 

3: 270

AQUEOUS TWO-PHASE SYSTEMS COMPOSED OF DIFFERENT MOLECULAR WEIGHT OF POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL AND DIAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE FOR EXTRACTION OF BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN
G. Khayati and M. Anvari

The effect of polymer molecular weight and pH on the partitioning of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) has been studied. The protein partitioning decreased on increasing the molecular weight of PEG, whereas the partitioning increased with pH increasing of the system. The maximum recovery percentage of extraction was in pH=8.5 and PEG1000.

 

3: 279

COMPOSITIONAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIOXIDANT PROFILE OF YELLOW, ORANGE AND PURPLE POLIGNANO CARROTS
M. Cefola, B. Pace, M. Renna, P. Santamaria, A. Signore and F. Serio

In the Puglia region, a multicolor landrace called the yellow-purple Polignano carrot has been cultivated since 1940 by local smallholder farmers and has been added to the Slow Food list of traditional products. Composition analyses of these carrots were carried out including carbohydrate assay, inorganic cations, nitrate content, and dry weight of each colour. Besides, antioxidant activity, β-carotene, total phenols and carotenoid content on the full carrots and on the cortex and inner core separated tissues were determined. The same analyses were performed on a commercial carrot cultivar.
On average, total glucose, fructose, and saccharose content was 22% lower in the yellow-purple Polignano carrot than in the commercial one. In addition, the highest contributor to the relative sweetness in the yellow-purple Polignano carrot was fructose (43.5%), which affects its wellknown taste, as well as its glycemic index. As for the nutritional parameters, purple carrots showed the highest content in antioxidant activity, total phenols, carotenoids and β-carotene, mainly detected in the cortex.

 

3: 284

SURVEY


 

CLASSIFICATION OF COMMERCIAL OMAMI HALWA BY PHYSIC-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND INSTRUMENTAL TEXTURE PROFILE ANALYSIS (TPA)
M. Shafiur Rahman, Q. Al-Shamsi, A. Abdullah, M.R. Claereboudt, B. Al-Belushi, R. Al-Maqbaly and J. Al-Sabahi

Commercially available Omani halwa from the local market was classified based on its composition and instrumental texture profile. The products were grouped into four classes based on cluster analysis. None of the attributes of the instrumental Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) were correlated significantly with the ash, colour and pH values (p<0.05), while specific attributes did correlate with specific aspects of the chemical composition. All TPA attributes were significantly correlated with specific types of fatty acid. Hardness was correlated significantly with the moisture and sugar contents, while adhesiveness was correlated significantly with the moisture, sugar and non-sugar carbohydrate contents (p<0.05). Springiness was correlated with sugar and non-sugar carbohydrate. The firmness and chewiness were correlated with moisture and the total fat, saturated and unsaturated fat contents (p<0.05). Cohesiveness-1 was correlated only with the protein, total fat, saturated and un-saturated fat contents, while cohesiveness-2 was correlated with sugar, total fat, saturated and unsaturated fat (p<0.05). The resilience was correlated with the total fat, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, while gumminess was only correlated with the moisture content. The link between TPA and physico-chemical characteristics was established using multivariate matrix correlations and revealed that the pattern of texture attributes was mostly linked to the moisture and fat contents. Principal component analysis was carried out to identify the main physico chemical properties and TPA attributes of the four classes of halwa as determined by cluster analysis. The four classes of halwa could be characterised as soft-resilient, soft-springy-cohesive, soft-springy and hard-chewy.

 

3: 292

NEWS


3: 305

PREVIEW ON VOLUME XXIV No. 4, 2012


3: 306

GUIDE FOR AUTHORS


3: 307

CONTRIBUTORS


3: 310




.

VOLUME XXIV (2012) Nr. 2


PAPERS


EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO GASEOUS OZONE AND NEGATIVE AIR IONS ON CONTROL OF EPIPHYTIC FLORA AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF BOTRYTIS CINEREA AND PENICILLIUM EXPANSUM DURING COLD STORAGE OF STRAWBERRIES AND TOMATOES
R. Tuffi, R. Lovino, S. Canese, L.M. Cafiero and F. Vitali

The aim of this study is to compare the effects of gaseous treatments on the control on postharvest decay. Specifically, cold-stored tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) were kept at 12° and 2°C, respectively, under 95% RH and exposed to Air (control), Ozone (0.5 ppm), Negative Air Ions (NAI, 6.1 x 106 ions/cm3) and a NAI+Ozone mixture (0.5 ppm and 6.1 x 106 ions/cm3) for 15 days. The effects of the gaseous treatments on control of epiphytic microflora and the development (disease incidence and aerial mycelial growth) of Botrytis cinerea Pers. and Penicillium expansum Link on the artificially inoculated fruits were evaluated. The examined treatments reduced superficial microbial contamination after 15 days of exposure. The best performance was achieved by the NAI+Ozone treatment combined with electrostatic filters; this treatment resulted in decreases in bacteria and yeast by 2.5 Log10 cfu/g. Visible mycelia and spore production on the artificially inoculated fruits were also considerably suppressed in the presence of ozone and/or NAI with a variable degree of success. The most promising results were obtained with the NAI+Ozone treatment; the disease incidence was considerably reduced, and the mean sporulation index never surpassed a value of 1, which completely inhibited spore formation. The fungistatic effect vanished when the fruits were removed from the atmosphere enriched with oxidizing agents.

 

2: 102

BIOCHEMICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF PENICILLIUM ROQUEFORTI AND GEOTRICHUM CANDIDUM STRAINS ISOLATED FROM CABRALES, A SPANISH TRADITIONAL, BLUE-VEINED, STARTER-FREE CHEES
C.O. Ferreira, P. Álvarez-Martín, A.B. Flórez, M. Díaz and B. Mayo

Autochthonous starters are thought to increase the quality and safety of traditional cheeses while preserving their typicity. In order to select appropriate ripening cultures, 12 Penicillium roqueforti and 10 Geotrichum candidum strains isolated from a Spanish, traditional, blue-veined cheese were subjected to different biochemical and technological assays. All strains were weakly proteolytic, whereas all P. roqueforti and four G. candidum strains proved to be lipolytic. None of the strains produced biogenic amines in broth media containing the required amino acid precursors. Under simulated cheese conditions (10ºC, pH=4.5, 5% NaCl), test strains showing technological performances superior to those of commercial strains currently in use were readily identified.

 

2: 115

KINETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIAL ISOLATES ABLE TO PROMOTE MALOLACTIC FERMENTATION AT REDUCED TEMPERATURES
A. Zinnai, F. Venturi, A. Toffanin, M. Agnolucci, M. Nuti and G. Andrich

Eight malolactic bacterial strains were isolated through enrichment cultures kept at 10°C from different Tuscan wines. Six strains were identified as Oenococcus oeni by ARDRA and speciesspecific PCR. Two strains were tentatively assigned to L. brevis . A kinetic approach was used to assess their activity at 25° and 10°C. All strains induced a remarkable conversion of L-malate at 25°C. Four strains showed a measurable fermentative activity at 10°C, among which L. brevis LB2 gave a significant conversion of L-malate. The kinetic activity of this strain appears to be unaffected by the components dissolved in wine.

 

2: 125

VOLATILE COMPOSITION OF “A LA PIEDRA” TURRÓN ENRICHED WITH ROYAL JELLY
E. García-García, E. Narbona, O. Jurado, F. Burló, E. Roche and A.A. Carbonell-Barrachina

“A la piedra” (ALP) turrón was used as model matrix to add a functional ingredient: royal jelly (RJ, 1.0%). The aroma profiles of control and RJ enriched ALP turrón were studied; 58 compounds were found (21 terpenes, 14 terpenoids, and 8 aldehydes), most of them coming from lemon peel. The attributes toasted, nutty and cinnamon were also of importance. The addition of RJ did not change the aroma profile and only slightly the sensory profile of this confection but will improve its health benefits by incorporating in the consumers’ diet 500 mg RJ per 50 g of RJ enriched ALP turrón.

 

2: 132

MONITORING BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF PRECOOKED LASAGNA
M.A. Marzano and C.M. Balzaretti

The effects of two preparation methods, two packaging materials, and modified atmosphere condition, on the bacteriological quality and safety of precooked lasagna, were studied. Microbiological analyses focused on Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, spores of sulphite-reducing clostridia, and on mesophilic and psychrotrophic aerobic bacteria, total coliforms and lactic acid bacteria. In total, 81 samples were examined, for up to 28 days. No pathogenic microorganisms were detected. After 28 days, spoilage-hygiene markers levels were non-compliant to reference standards. In conclusion, lasagna prepared with hot method in polyethylene packages were acceptable for up to 21 days.

 

2: 140

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE INNER CELLULATION OF SYNTHETIC STOPPERS AND THE BROWNING OF A WHITE WINE OVER EIGHTEEN MONTHS OF STORAGE
M. Lambri, A. Silva and D.M. De Faveri

We attempted to predict the performance of cylindrical stoppers by evaluating their inner morphology. The same white wine lots were stored for eighteen months under controlled humidity and temperature conditions. Stopper cellulation was analysed using scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the wine-browning kinetics were significantly different for each stopper used and were related to the regularity of stopper cellulation. Combining our observations regarding the inner closure morphology with data on browning kinetics, we propose an arbitrary scale for classifying stopper quality. This scale can be practically applied during pre-bottling operations to choose the most efficient cylindrical closure.

 

2: 149

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE PHENOLIC COMPOSITION OF SEEDS FROM GRAPES CV CARDINAL AND ALPHONSE LAVALLEE DURING LAST MONTH OF RIPENING
A. Topalovic, D. Godjevac, N. Perovic and S. Trifunovic

During the last month of ripening, the phenolic composition of seeds from two widely distributed table grapes, cv Cardinal and Alphonse Lavallee, was determined by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS. Besides, the concentrations of nutrients in leaf blades of grapevine were measured. Generally, the most abundant phenolic in grape seed was gallic acid, followed by methyl gallate and monomeric flavan-3-ols. In comparison to Alphonse Lavallee, the amounts of phenolics were higher in grape seed of Cardinal, in which gallic acid glucoside was not detected. Among analyzed phenolics, the increase of gallic acid was evidenced in grape seed of Cardinal. The most of phenolics decreased during t he last month of grape ripening, and some of them had no significantly different content. Results of bivariate correlations showed that the amounts of some phenolics in grape seed of Cardinal increased with increasing of the content of potassium and phosphorus in leaves.

 

2: 159

FAST NON-DESTRUCTIVE DETERMINATION OF CHLOROPHYLLS IN APPLE SKIN
A. Venturello, R. Ceccarelli, E. Garrone and F. Geobaldo

The evaluation of the chlorophyll content in fruit peel is usually performed by means of complex destructive procedures that include extraction and separation. In the present work, a non-destructive procedure, based on UV-Vis spectroscopy in the diffuse reflectance mode, is proposed for the quantitative measurement of both chlorophylls a and b , utilising the spectral range in which molecules other than chlorophylls show low absorbance. Two methods are presented and compared, one based on multivariate analysis over the whole range, and the other based on a linear regression at two meaningful wavelengths.

 

2: 167

EFFECT OF MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING ON HALVAS FARSALON QUALITY DURING REFRIGERATED STORAGE
E. Botsoglou, P. Vareltzis, P. Giannouli and A. Govaris

Halvas Farsalon, a traditional confection of Greece, was packaged under modified atmosphere conditions (MAP) with four different gas mixtures (groups: A: 80%N2 - 20%CO2 ; B: 30%N2 -70%CO2 ; C: 100%N2 , and Control: atmospheric air) and stored at 4°C for 28 days. The sensory properties, color, textural performance, and oxidative stability of halvas were evaluated during MAP storage. Results showed that storage affected the fatty acid profile of the control group by decreasing the percentage proportion of MUFAs and PUFAs and increasing SFAs, while had no effect on the other groups among which group A presented better quality characteristics.

 

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SHORT COMMUNICATIONS

 


QUALITY AND SAFETY OF ITALIAN WINE VINEGAR
V. Dell’Oro, A. Ciambotti and C. Tsolakis

The aim of this work was to investigate the most common frauds in the production of wine vinegar in Italy. By means of isotopic analyses (SNIF-NMR and IRMS techniques), 100 samples of commercial wine vinegars and 100 samples of red and white wines used for vinegar production were analysed to detect any illegal practices such as watering, sugaring, addition of synthetic acetic acid or table grapes. For further investigations, samples were also submitted to chemical, physical, microbiological and sensorial analyses. The results show that the addition of synthetic acetic acid is still a very common fraud.


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EFFECT OF ORGANIC FERTILIZATION ON QUALITY AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF HULLED WHEATS
C. Fares, P. Codianni and V. Menga

The results of an agronomic trial of two levels of nitrogen fertilization for organic farming in comparison with conventional farming are discussed. Two groups of wheat were compared; namely, durum and soft-wheat cultivars, including the emmer and spelta genotypes. Analyses were carried out to determine lignan, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, the mineral elements and the dough rheological properties. Statistical analysis showed that under conditions of organic farming, the lignans and antioxidant activity reached the greater levels. For the qualitative parameters, the conditions of organic farming with N fertilization did not damage the indices analyzed. For the mineral content, the effects of the fertilization were not significant.

 

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PREVIEW ON VOLUME XXIV NO. 3,2012


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GUIDE FOR AUTHORS


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CONTRIBUTORS 
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VOLUME XXIV (2012) Nr. 1


 

CONTENTS


PAPERS


SPE-IMS AS A NEW ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE FOR IDENTIFICATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF METALAXYL RESIDUE IN CUCUMBER
M. Soleimani, M. Azam, M. Azimi and K. Borhani

Detection and determination of metalaxyl residue in cucumber by using SPE-ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) with 63Ni as ionization source was evaluated for the first time. Pretreatment included extraction of the pigments from the sample by liquid–liquid extraction and extraction of metalaxyl by solid phase extraction (SPE) using C18 sorbent. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) for the metalaxyl were obtained 0.24 and 3.75 ng/g in positive mode, respectively. At optimum effective parameters, the concentration factor 133.3 was obtained. The working range of this compound was about two orders of magnitude and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of repeatability at the 0.5 µg/g level was 5.5%.

 

1: 3

PREVALENCE OF MAJOR PATHOGENS ON SHEEP CARCASSES SLAUGHTERED IN ITALY
S. Bilei, E.M. Flores Rodas, R. Tolli, P. De Santis, I. Di Domenico, S. Del Frate, P. Palmieri and R. Condoleo

Sheep are known to be a major vector of the most common zoonoses such as Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157, and Clostridium perfringens. The aim of the present study is to detect the presence of these pathogens in ovine carcasses immediately after slaughtering, in order to collect useful data for risk assessment. Ovine carcasses (n=320) from different European countries were sampled using surface swabs and a destructive method. Campylobacter spp. was detected on 10 carcasses (3.12%), E. coli O157 on 13 (4.06%), Salmonella spp. on 2 (0.62%), Clostridium perfringens on 6 out of 150 carcasses sampled (4%). No Listeria monocytogenes was detected.

 

1: 9

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF THE ESSENTIAL OILS FROM FLOWERS, LEAVES, AND STEMS OF WEDELIA URTICIFOLIA
L. Zhu, Y.J Tian, Y.C Yin and S.M. Zhu

The composition of essential oils from the flowers, leaves, and stems of Wedelia urticifolia were analysed. α-Pinene (19.80%) and d-limonene (17.31%) were the most abundant compounds in flower oils, while α-pinene (15.57%), d-limonene (11.19%), α-phellandrene (9.69%), γ-terpinene (9.01%), and germacrene D (9.68%) were the main constituents of leaf oil. In stems oils, the major compounds were D-limonene (18.11%), γ-terpinene (13.89%), germacrene D (12.80%), and α pinene (9.21%). Oils from flowers, leaves, and stems exhibited antimicrobial activity against a variety of bacteria, yeasts, and moulds as indicated by the diameter of zones of inhibition (flower oil: 20.8-23.2 mm, leaf oil: 19.4-21.2 mm, stem oil: 18.6-20.6 mm) and their respective MIC values (flower oil: 6.25-25.0 µg/mL, leaf oil: 12.5-50.0 µg/mL, stem oil: 25.0-50.0 µg/mL).

 

1: 19

EFFECT OF DRYING PROCESS IN CHAMBER AT CONTROLLED TEMPERATURE ON THE GRAPE PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS
M.T. Frangipane, S. Torresi, D. De Santis and R. Massantini

The aim of this paper was to study the phenolic compounds evolution during the off-vine drying process in chamber at controlled temperature and to assess whether this dehydration technique might be used to avoid strong oxidations. Grapes were placed in perforated plastic boxes inside a chamber; fans were installed to ensure humidity and temperature control. Phenolic compounds were characterized by HPLC. Dehydration was fast and regular. This technique ensures phenols protection, artificially dried grapes maintained a higher phenolic concentration than those just harvested. This grape drying technique may ensure the production of sweet wines in which phenols content is preserved.

 

1: 26

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND ELECTRONIC NOSE MEASUREMENTS ON THE STUDY OF BISCUIT BAKING KINETICS
S. Romani, F. Balestra, A. Angioloni, P. Rocculi and M. Dalla Rosa

The main physico-chemical modifications during the cooking process of laboratory-made biscuits were monitored at different cooking times (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 min). Moisture content, surface colours and textures were measured. In addition the evolution of the flavour release was performed by means of an electronic nose equipped with 10 metal-oxide sensors. Multivariate statistical analyses were performed to distinguish samples as a function of their physico-chemical characteristics. The electronic nose permitted differentiation between raw, under cooked, wellcooked and over cooked products. Similar and complementary information was obtained considering both electronic nose data and traditional physico-chemical cooking indexes. The obtained results showed that it could be feasible to monitor the changes in the biscuit’s aroma and cooking level directly during the process by using an electronic nose with a simplified gas sensor array, as well as allowing the optimization of the technological parameters.

 

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SHELF-LIFE OF MINIMALLY PROCESSED BLOOD ORANGES AS AFFECTED BY MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING
P. Rapisarda, C. Caggia, S.E. Bellomo, P. Pannuzzo, C. Restuccia, N. Timpanaro and C.M. Lanza

The present study evaluated the shelf-life of two minimally processed Tarocco genotypes (Gallo and Scirè) that were packaged in a modified atmosphere with three gas mixtures of different percentages of O2, CO2 and N2. No important physicochemical differences were observed among the orange slices packaged under modified atmosphere and stored at 4°C for 15 ds. The low O2 percentage in the atmosphere of trays may have caused a decrease in the oxidation process. In addition, the increasing amount of CO2 due to the respiration process did not lead to fermentation phenomena. Sensory and microbiological changes, however, were observed among the slices packaged with the three gas mixtures, especially for the Tarocco Scirè.

 

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DETERMINATION OF CAPSAICINOIDS FROM DRIED PEPPER FRUITS BY FAST-GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY
M. Bononi and F. Tateo

The present paper describes the application of Fast-gas chromatography (GC) to quantify the capsaicinoid content in dried pepper fruit with the aim to calculate the Scoville heat values (SHVs) for routine quality control. Fast-GC was used to analyse various samples of dried pepper fruits with a wide distribution of SHVs. The calibration curves demonstrated a polynomial model in the range of 3.0-195.0 μg mL-1 for capsaicin and 2.6-105.0 μg mL-1 for dihydrocapsaicin and nordihydrocapsaicin, with correlation coefficients of 0.996 and 0.997, respectively. The data showed an intraday relative standard deviation (RSD) <5% and an interday relative repeatability standard deviation (RSDr) <6%.

 

1: 49

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SESAME LIGNAN COMPOUNDS ON SOYBEAN OIL
M. Bahmaei and H. Peyman

Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seed and oil contain abundant lignans, including sesamol, sesamin, sesamolin and lignin glycosides. In this study we investigated the effects of extracted lignin compounds on soybean oil without antioxidant. Sesame cake was extracted with two different solvents (methanol and ethanol) to get a purified extract with higher antioxidant content and better activity. The qualitative analysis of antioxidant lignans present in the extract was carried out by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a C18 column. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of sesame cake (EESC) and methanolic extract of sesame cake (MESC) was evaluated in soybean oil (SBO) using: Schaal Oven Test, Rancimat test. Results of peroxide value (PV) and p-anisidine value (p-AV) showed that EESC at concentrations of 1,500 and 2,000 mg/kg and MESC at concentration of 2,000 mg/kg in vegetable oils, could significantly (P<0.05) lower the peroxide value and p-anisidine value of oils during storage at 60°C. This is indicative of antioxidant activity in sesame cake extract (ESC) Butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) was used as control in this study.

 

 

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SHORT COMMUNICATION

 


THE STABILITY OF FROZEN MINCED AFRICAN CATFISH
J.P. Durães, P.R.C. Oliveira Filho, J.C.C. Balieiro, C.R. Del Carratore and E.M.M. Viegas

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the stability (-18ºC) of minced African catfish (MF) for 180 days. Microbiological aspects, lipid oxidation, and total volatile nitrogenous bases (TVB-N) of the MF were determined with and without washing. Washing of the MF caused an increase in moisture content, decrease in proteins, and leaching of the compounds responsible for lipid oxidation. The TVB-N remained stable during the storage period. The microbiological parameters of the MF remained within the legal limits. Thus, a 180-days storage period does not affect the quality of MF and could be a good alternative for the exploitation of this species in Brazil.


1: 61

PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, ENZYMATIC AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ARTISANAL RENNET PASTES FROM THE CENTRE OF ITALY
C. Tripaldi, G. Palocci, S. Bilei, T. Bogdanova, M.F. Scintu and M. Addis

The safety and hygienic characteristics and enzymatic activities of artisanal rennet pastes were analysed to obtain a special derogation from regulation on the hygiene of foodstuffs that was necessary to continue making cheeses by traditional processes. We found great variability among samples coming from different cheese plants at the farm. The samples had good clotting (189±77 IMCU/g) and lipolytic activities (36,2±27,5 ILU/g). Pathogens and microorganisms, considered to be markers of hygienic conditions, were absent or less than the maximum count tolerated. Our results showed that the treatment performed on artisanal rennet pastes did not favour the growth of germs dangerous to consumer health and assured the enzymatic content necessary to achieve typical characteristics of traditional cheeses.

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SURVEY

DIETARY HABITS OF CHILDREN LIVING IN THE ITALIAN AREA OF VERSILIA
D. Fiorini, S. Perseo and R. Ballini

This study evaluates the implementation of the Italian dietary guidelines in children’s diets. The results indicate only 52% of children in primary school eat breakfast daily, 92% in nursery school and 77% in middle school; 28-46% have a snack daily in the morning as compared to 50-81% in the afternoon. The consumption frequency of fruit as a snack or for breakfast is very low, with a maximum of 12% consuming fruit everyday. During lunch and dinner, consumption frequencies of vegetables are very low: 15-17% never eat vegetables. Furthermore, 7-14% of children never eat fish. More efforts are needed to educate children and induce them to adopt healthier dietary behaviours in order to prevent and to fight against childhood obesity and related diseases.


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FOOD SAFETY KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICES OF NURSING STUDENTS
N. Sanlier, S. Bilici, B. Çelik and E. Memiş

The aim of the study was to evaluate the perception of food safety knowledge of 662 nursing students (629 females, 33 males) aged between 18 and 26. A statistically significant correlation was found between food hygiene, personal/kitchen hygiene knowledge, food handling practices, food safety attitudes, and total score (p<0.01). The female students’ food safety knowledge, personal/kitchen hygiene knowledge, food handling practices, and total scores relating to food safety scored significantly higher than those of males (p<0.01). Results strongly emphasize the need for basic education in food safety throughout the nursing course.

 

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GUIDE FOR AUTHORS  

 

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CONTRIBUTORS 
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FoodExecutive

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Database Articoli

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